Do you often consume antibiotics without prescription? If yes then know that it can cause you harm. Over-consuming of antibiotics is turning bacteria into ‘superbugs’ which means no medicine will not affect such bacteria after some time. Studies show that these superbugs are making humans victims of deadly diseases. Every year the lives of millions of people are falling prey to these 'superbugs'. Scientists from all over the world, including the WHO, are expressing concern that if antibiotics continue to be used wildly without medical advice, then in the next 25 years all antibiotics will become ineffective.
If taking antibiotic pills without prescription continues, then in future the bacteria of minor diseases like fever and diarrhea will cause more havoc than Covid-19. Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Senior Consultant and Internal Medicine Expert at Paras Hospital, Gurugram, explains that the drugs used in the treatment of bacterial infections are called antibiotics. Antibiotics is made up of two words 'anti' and 'bios' which means 'anti life'. That is, these medicines destroy bacteria and prevent them from growing. However, not all diseases are caused by bacteria.
Dr. Sanjay Gupta explains that in case of problems like respiratory infection, cold, sore throat, sinus, pneumonia as well as ear, chest and skin infections, people start their own treatment and use antibiotics pills. They don’t know that their health has deteriorated due to the virus, which will be cured only after taking its time. There is no need to take antibiotics in such situations.
Virus and bacteria are two different infections, their medicines are also different. Eating antibiotics in viral infection is dangerous for health. Dr. Gupta says that 80 percent of patients with cold, fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, diarrhea are of viral fever. Doctors give common medicines to these patients on the basis of symptoms, from which they get cured in 2-4 days. Dr. Gupta emphasizes that viral infections sometimes do not even require antiviral drugs, while people swallow antibiotics without medical advice, which is wrong.
This medicine acts as 'poison' when antibiotics are taken in viral infection. It also destroys the good bacteria that fight infection in the body. This gives dangerous bacteria a chance to dominate the body. At the same time, bad bacteria get to survive antibiotics. Then the medicines do not affect the body. This is called 'antimicrobial resistance' (AMR) in the world of medical science, which later also causes superbugs.
According to WHO, the treatment of diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning and gonorrhea is becoming difficult. According to ICMR, this is the reason why carbapenem, a drug used in the treatment of pneumonia, septicemia, has been banned, because now this drug is ineffective against bacteria.
There are 3.7% new TB patients worldwide and old TB patients are getting TB again as antibiotics given to kill TB bacteria are not effective. The Central government has set a target to make India free of TB by 2050 is a dream now. In 2019, the US drug agency FDA approved another drug ‘pretomenid’, which is 90% more powerful than the old drugs, to eliminate bacteria that have developed resistance against drugs.
On the other hand, not enough new drugs are being developed to combat these superbugs. WHO has also issued a warning in this regard recently. Currently, only 27 new antibiotics are undergoing clinical trials worldwide. Out of which only 6 drugs are such that can become effective antibiotics and only 2 drugs are such that they will be able to control the superbug.
Professor Bharat Jairam Venkat at the Institute for Society and Genetics, University of California, says that every new antibiotic drug raises the hope of eradicating diseases like TB, but with the passage of time, bacteria overcome that drug and a new challenge arises.
Dr. Sanjay Gupta says that at present there is no alternative to antibiotics. It is possible that in the coming years, such drugs can be made to control bacteria, which can treat diseases without causing harm. Scientists around the world are trying to find a better alternative to antibiotics.
One such research is being done by the scientists of the University of Sydney. Instead of antibiotics, they are doing research on viruses that eat disease-causing bacteria. Such viruses are called 'bacteriophage' and are naturally present on the earth. Bacteriophage viruses can eradicate such bacteria on which antibiotics have stopped working.
Source: Dainik Bhaskar
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